Shipley, B. 2016.  Cause and Correlation in Biology: A User’s Guide to Path Analysis, Structural Equations and Causal Inference with R. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK. Purchase here.

Shipley, B. 2010From plant traits to vegetation structure.  Chance and selection in the assembly of ecological communities.  Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK. More details here.

Shipley, B. 2000. Cause and Correlation in Biology: A User’s Guide to Path Analysis, Structural Equations and Causal Inference. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK.


Peer-review articles; *étudiants

1.                   Belluau, M.*, Shipley, B. (2018). Linking hard and soft traits: Physiology, morphology and anatomy interact to determine habitat affinities to soil water availability in herbaceous dicots. PLOS ONE (sous presse).

2.                   Li*, Y., Shipley, B. (2018). Community divergence and convergence along experimental gradients of stress and disturbance.  Ecology (sous presse).

3.                   Shipley, B., Belluau*, M. et al. (2017). Predicting habitat affinities of plant species using commonly measured functional traits.  Journal of Vegetation Science 28: 1082-1095.

4.                   Li*, Y.*, Shipley, B., Price, J.N., Dantas, V., Tamme, R., Westoby, M., Siefert, A., Schamp, B.S., Spasojevic, M.J., Jung, V., Laughlin, D.C., Richardson, S.J., Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Schöb, C., Gazol, A., Prentice, H.C., Gross, N., Overton, J., Cianciaruso, M.V., Louault, F., Kamiyama, C., Nakashizuka, T., Hikosaka, K., Sasaki, T., Katabuchi, M., Frenette Dussault*, C., Gaucherand, S., Chen, N., Vandewalle, M., Batalha, .M.A. (2017). Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide. J. Ecology (sous presse).

5.                   L., Y.*, Shipley, B. (2017). An experimental test of CSR theory using a globally calibrated ordination method.  PLOS ONE 12(4):e0175404.

6.                   Belluau*, M., Shipley, B. (2017). Predicting habitat affinities of herbaceous dicots to soil wetness based on physiological traits of drought tolerance.  Annals of Botany 119 : 1073-1084

7.                   Garnier, E., Stahl, U., Laporte, M.-A., Kattge, J., Mougenot, I., Kuehn, I., Laporte, B., Amiaud, B., Ahrestani, F., Bönisch, G., Bunker, D., Cornelissen, J., Díaz, S., Enquist, B., Gachet, S., Jaureguiberry, P., Kleyer, M., Lavorel, S., Maicher, L., Pérez-Harguindeguy, N., Poorter, H., Schildhauer, M., Shipley, B., Violle, C., Weiher, E., Wirth, C., Wright, I., Klotz, S. (2017). Towards a thesaurus of plant characteristics: an ecological contribution. Journal of Ecology 105:298-309.

8.                   Ameztegui, A., Paquette, A., Shipley, B., Heym, M., Messier, C., Gravel, D. (2017). Shade tolerance and the functional trait – demography relationship in temperate and boreal forests. Functional Ecology 31: 821-830.

9.                   Davidson-Jewell, M.*, Shipley, B., Low-Décarie, E., Tobner, C., Paquette, A., Messier, C., Reich, P. B. (2017). Partitioning the effect of composition and diversity of tree communities on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration. Oikos 126.:959-971

10.               Pierce, S., Negreiros, D., Cerabolini, B.E.L., Jens Kattge, J., Díaz, S., Kleyer, M., Shipley, B., Wright, S.J., Soudzilovskaia, N.A., Onipchenko, V.G., van Bodegom, P.M., Frenette-Dussault, C., Weiher, E., Pinho, B.X.,  Cornelissen, J.H.C., Grime, J.P., Thompson, K., Hunt, R., Wilson, P.J., Buffa, G., Oliver C. Nyakunga, O.C., Reich, P.B., Caccianiga, M., Mangili, F., Ceriani, R.M., Luzzaro, A., Brusa, G., Siefert, A., Barbosa, N.P.U., Chapin III, F.S., Cornwell, W.K., Fang, J., Fernandes, G.W., Garnier, E., Le Stradic, S., Peñuelas, J., Melo, F.P.L., Slaviero, A., Tabarelli, M., Tampucci, D.. (2016). A global method for calculating plant CSR ecological strategies applied across biomes worldwide. Functional Ecology 31: 444-457.

11.               Loranger*, J., Blonder, B., Garnier, E., Shipley, B., Vile, D., Violle, C. (2016). Occupancy and overlap in trait space along a successional gradient in Mediterranean old-fields. American Journal of Botany 103:1050-1060.

12.               Sandra Díaz, S., Jens Kattge, J. Cornelissen, J.H.C., Wright, I.J., Lavorel, S., Dray, S., Reu, B., Kleyer, M., Wirth, C., Prentice, I.C., Garnier, E., Boenisch, G., Westoby, M., Poorter, H., Reich, P.B., Moles, A.T., Dickie, J., Gillison, A.N., Zanne, A.E., Chave, J., Wright, S.J., Sheremetev, S., Jactel, H. , Baraloto, C., Cerabolini, B., Pierce, S., Shipley, B., Kirkup. D., Casanoves. F., Joswig, J., Günther, A., Falczuk, V., Rüger, N., Mahecha, M.D., Lucas D. Gorné, L.D. (2016). The global spectrum of plant form and function. Nature 529 : 167–171

13.               Nina Pourhassan*, N., Bruno, S., Davidson Jewell*, M., Shipley, B., Roy, S., Jean-Philippe Bellenger, J.-P. (2016). Phosphorus and micronutrient dynamics during gymnosperm and angiosperm litters decomposition in temperate cold forest from Eastern Canada. Geoderma 273:25-31.

14.               Aubin, I., Munson, A., Cardou, F., Burton, P.J., Isabel, N., Pedlar, J.H., Paquette, A., Taylor, A.R., Delagrange, S., Kebli, H., Messier, C., Shipley, B., Valladares, F., Kattge, J., Boisvert-Marsh, L., and McKenney, D. 2016. Traits to stay, traits to move: a review of functional traits to assess sensitivity and adaptive capacity of temperate and boreal trees to climate change. Environmental Reviews 24 : 164 - 186

15.               Loranger*, J., Violle, C., Shipley, B., Lavorel,S., Bonis, A., Cruz, P.,, Louault, F., Loucougaray, G., Mesléard, F., Yavercovski, N., Garnier, E. (2016). Recasting the dynamic equilibrium model through a functional lens: the interplay of trait-based community assembly and climate. Journal of Ecology 104: 781-791.

16.               Shipley, B., De Bello, F., Cornelissen, J.H.C., Laliberté, E., Laughlin, D.C., Reich, P.B. (2016). Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.  Oecologia 180:923-932.

17.               Jewell*, M.D., Shipley, B., Paquette, A., Messier, C., Reich, P.B. (2015). A traits-based test of the home-field advantage in mixed-species tree litter decomposition.  Annals of Botany 116: 781-788.

18.               Siefert, A., Violle,C., Chalmandrier, L., Albert, C.H., Taudiere, A., Fajado, A., Aarssen, L.W., Baraloto, C., Carlucci, M.B., Cianciaruso, M.V., Dantas, V., de Bello, F., Duarte, L.D.S., Fonseca, C.R.,  Freschet, G.T., Gaucherand, S., Gross, N., Hikosaka, K., Jackson, B., Jung, V., Kamiyama, C., Katabuchi, M., Kembel, S.W., Kichenin, E., Kraft, N.J.B., Lagerström, A., Le Bagousse-Pinguet. Y., Li, Y.*, Mason, N., Messier, J., Nakashizuka, T.,  Overton, J., Peltzer, D., Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Pillar, V.D., Prentice, H.C., Richardson, S., Sasaki, T., Schamp, B.S., Schöb, C., Shipley, B., Sundqvist, M., Sykes, M.T., Vandewalle, M., Wardle, D.A., Wright, I. (2015). A global meta-analysis of the relative extent of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities.  Ecology Letters 18:1406-1419.

19.               Manning, P., De Vries, F., Tallowin, J., Smith, R., Mortimer, S. Pilgrim, E., Harrison, K., Wright, D., Quirk, H., Benson, J., Shipley, B., Cornelissen, J., Kattge, J., Bönisch, G., Wirth, C., Bardgett, R. (2015) Simple measures of climate, soil properties and plant traits predict national scale grassland soil carbon stocks. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:1188-1196.

20.               Blonder, B., Vasseur, F., Violle, C., Shipley, B., Enquist, B.J., Vile, D. (2015). Testing models for the leaf economics spectrum with leaf and whole-plant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. Annals of Botany Plants 7:plv049.

21.               Shipley, B. (2015). Describing, explaining and predicting community assembly: a convincing trait-based case study. Journal of Vegetation Science 26:615 – 616.

22.               Rivest, D., Paquette, A., Shipley, B., Reich, P. & Messier, C. (2015). Tree communities rapidly alter soil microbial resistance and resilience to drought. Functional Ecology 29: 570-578.

23.               Tardif*, A., Shipley, B. (2015). The relationship between functional dispersion of mixed-species leaf litter mixtures and species’ interactions during decomposition.  Oikos 124:1050-1057.

24.               Warton, D.I., Shipley, B. & Hastie, T. (2015). CATS regression – a model-based approach to studying trait-based community assembly. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6:389-398.

25.               Lohier, T., Jabot, F., Meziane, D., Shipley, B., Reich, P.B., Deffuant, G. (2014). Explaining ontogenetic shifts in root-shoot scaling with transient dynamics.  Annals of Botany 114:513-524.

26.               Tardif, A.*, Shipley, B., Bloor, J.M.G., Sousanna, J.-F. (2014). Can the biomass-ratio hypothesis predict mixed-species litter decomposition along a climatic gradient? Annals of Botany 113: 843 - 850.

27.               Shipley, B. (2013). Measuring and interpreting trait-based selection vs. meta-community effects during local community assembly. Journal of Vegetation Science 25:55-65.

28.               Loranger*, J., Meyer, S.T., Shipley, B., Kattge, J., Loranger, H., Roscher, C., Wirth, C., Weisser, W.W. (2013). Predicting invertebrate herbivory from plant traits: polycultures show strong non-additive effects. Ecology 94: 1499-1509.

29.               Frenette-Dussault*, C.; Shipley, B. & Hingrat, Y. (2013). Linking plant and insect traits to understand multitrophic community structure in arid steppes. Functional Ecology 27:786-792.

30.               Frenette-Dussault*, C., Shipley, B. (2013). Trait-based climate change predictions of plant community structure in arid steppes. J. Ecol. 101:484-492.

31.               Shipley, B. (2013). The AIC model selection method applied to path analytic models compared using a d-separation tests.  Ecology 94:560-564.

32.               Auger*, S., Shipley, B. (2013).  Interspecific and intraspecific trait variation along short environmental gradients in an old-growth temperate forest.  Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 419–428.

33.               Tardif*, A., Shipley, B. (2013). Using the biomass-ratio and idiosyncratic hypotheses to predict mixed-species litter decomposition.  Annals of Botany 111:135-141.

34.               de Vries, F., Manning, P., Tallowin, J., Mortimer, S., Pilgrim, E., Harrison, K., Hobbs, P., Quirk, H., Shipley, B., Cornelissen, H., Kattge, J., Bardgett, R. (2012). Abiotic drivers and plant traits explain landscape-scale patterns in soil microbial communities. Ecology Letters 15:1230-1239.

35.               Loranger, J.*, Meyer, S.T., Shipley, B., Kattge, J., Kern, H. Roscher, C. & Wolfgang W. Weisser, W.W. (2012). Predicting invertebrate herbivory from plant traits: evidence from 51 grassland species in experimental monocultures. Ecology 93:2674-2682.

36.               Lachapelle*, P.-P. & Shipley, B. (2012). Interspecific prediction of photosynthetic-light response curves using specific leaf mass and leaf nitrogen content: effects of differences in soil fertility and growth irradiance.  Annals of Botany 109: 1149-2012.

37.               Laliberté, E.*, Shipley.  B., Norton, D.A.  & Scott, D. (2012). Which plant traits determine abundance under long-term shifts in soil resource availability and grazing intensity? Journal of Ecology 100:662-677.

38.               Shipley, B., Paine, C.E.T. & Baraloto, C. (2012). Quantifying the importance of local niche-based and stochastic processes to tropical tree community assembly. Ecology 93: 760-769.

39.               Douma*, J.C. , Shipley, B., Witte, J.P.M., Aerts, R. & van Bodegom, P.M. (2012). Disturbance and resource availability act differently on the same suite of plant traits; revisiting assembly hypotheses.  Ecology 93: 825-835.

40.               Frenette-Dussault*, C., Shipley, B., Léger, J.-F., Meziane, D. & Hingrat, Y. (2012). Functional structure of an arid steppe plant community reveals similarities with Grime’s C-S-R theory.  Journal of Vegetation Science 23:208-222

41.               Aulen*, M., Shipley, B., Bradley, R. (2012). Prediction of in situ root decomposition rates in an interspecific context from chemical and  morphological traits.  Annals of Botany 109 :287-297.

42.               Sonnier*, G., Shipley, B., Fayolle, A., Navas, M.-L. (2012).  Quantifying trait selection driving community assembly: A test in herbaceous plant communities under contrasted land use regimes. Oikos 121: 1103-1111.

43.               Hodgson, J.G., Montserrat-Martí, G., M. Charles, M., Jones, G., Wilson, P., Shipley, B., Sharafi, M., Cerabolini, B.E.I., J. H. C. Cornelissen, J.H.C., Band, S.R., Bogard, A.,  Castro-Díez, P., Guerrero-Campo, J., Palmer, C., Pérez-Rontomé, M.C., Carter, G., A. Hynd, A., A. Romo-Díez, A., L. de Torres Espuny, L., Royo Pla, F. (2011). Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area?  Annals of Botany 108 : 1337-1345.

44.               Kattge, J., Shipley, B., 121 others.  (2011) TRY - a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935.

45.               Shipley, B., Laughlin, D.C., Sonnier*, G. & Otfinowski*, R. (2011).  A strong test of a maximum entropy model of trait-based community assembly.  Ecology 92:507-517.

46.               Sonnier*, G., Shipley, B. & Navas, M.-L. (2010). Quantifying relationships between traits and explicitly measured gradients of stress and disturbance in early successional plant communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 21:1014-1024.

47.               Useche*, A. & Shipley, B. (2010). Plasticity in relative growth rate after a reduction in nitrogen availability is related to root morphological and physiological responses.  Annals of Botany 106 :617-625.

48.               Bergeron, P.*, Grignolio, S.,Apollonio, M., Shipley, B. & Festa-Bianchet. M. (2010). Secondary sexual characters signal fighting ability and determine social rank in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex).  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 64:1299-1207.

49.               Shipley, B. (2010).  Community assembly, natural selection, and maximum entropy models. Oikos 119:604-609.

50.               Sonnier*, G., Shipley, B. & Navas, M.-L. (2010). Plant traits, species pools and the prediction of relative abundance in plant communities: a maximum entropy approach. Journal of Vegetation Science 21:318-331.

51.               Useche*, A. & Shipley, B. (2010). Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.  Annals of Botany 105:333-339.

52.               Loranger*, J. & Shipley, B. (2010). Interspecific covariation between stomatal density and other functional leaf traits in a local flora. Botany 88:30-38.

53.               Shipley, B. (2010). Inferential permutation tests for maximum entropy models in ecology. Ecology 91: 2794-2805.

54.               Marino*, G., Aqil,* M. & Shipley, B. (2010).The leaf economics spectrum and the prediction of photosynthetic light response curves.  Functional Ecology 24:263-272.

55.               Thomas, D.W., Bourgault*, P. Shipley, B., Perret, P. & Blondel, J. (2010).  Context-dependent changes in the weighting of environmental cues that initiate breeding in a temperate passerine, the Corsican Blue Tit.  Auk 127:129-139.

56.               Shipley B. 2009. Trivial and non-trivial applications of entropy maximization in ecology: Shipley's reply.  Oikos 118: 1279-1280.

57.               Kang, C. & Shipley, B. (2009). A correction note on "A new inferential test for path models based on directed acyclic graphs".  Structural Equation Modeling 16:537-538.

58.               Dubois*, Y., Blouin-Demers, G., Shipley, B. & Thomas, D.  (2009). Thermoregulation and habitat selection in wood turtles (Glyptemys insulpta): chasing the sun slowly.  Journal of Animal Ecology 78:1023-1032.

59.               Shipley, B. (2009). Limitations of entropy maximization in ecology : a reply to Haegeman and Loreau. Oikos 118:152-159.

60.               Shipley, B. (2009). Confirmatory path analysis in a generalized multilevel context.  Ecology 90:363-368.

61.               Saura-Mas*, S., Shipley, B. & Lloret, F. (2009). Testing leaf trade-offs in Mediterranean woody species: Post-fire regenerative strategy links water regulation and leaf dry matter content.  Functional Ecology 23:103-110.

62.               Thomas, D.W.,  Shipley, B., Blondel, J., Perret, P., Simon*, A. &  M. M. Lambrechts, M.M. (2007). Common paths link food abundance and ectoparasite loads to physiological performance and recruitment in nestling Blue Tits.  Functional Ecology 21:947-955. 

63.               Niklas, K.J., Cobb, E.D., Niinemets, U., Reich, P.B., Sellin, A., Shipley, B., & Wright, I.J. (2007). Evidence for “breaking even” and “diminishing returns” in the scaling of functional leaf trait s across and within six species-groups.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 104:8891-8896.

64.               Shipley, B., Vile, D.*, & Garnier, E. (2007). A response to technical  comments on: "From plant traits to plant communities: A statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity". Science 316: 1425.

65.               Shipley, B. (2007). Comparative plant ecology as a tool for integrating across scales.  Annals of Botany 99:965-966.

66.               Shipley, B., Vile, D.*, & Garnier, E. (2006). From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity.  Science 314: 812-814.

67.               Lamarche, L*.,  Bradley, R.L., Hooper, E., Shipley, B., Simao-Beaunoir, A.-M.. & C. Beaulieu, C. (2007). Forest floor bacterial community composition and catabolic profiles in relation to landscape features in Quebec’s southern boreal forest. Microbial Ecology 54: 10-20. .

68.               Shipley, B. (2006). Net assimilation rate, specific leaf area and leaf mass ratio: which is most closely correlated with relative growth rate: A meta-analysis.  Functional Ecology 20:565-574.

69.               Vile*, D., Shipley, B. & Garnier, E. (2006). Ecosystem productivity can be predicted from abundance-weighted measures of potential relative growth rate.  Ecology Letters 9:1061-1067.

70.               Shipley, B., Lechowicz, M.J., Wright, I. & Peter B. Reich, P.B. (2006). Fundamental tradeoffs generating the worldwide leaf economics spectrum .  Ecology 87:535-541.

71.               Kazakou, E., Vile*, D., Shipley, B., Gallet, C. & Garnier, E. (2006). Covariation in litter decomposition, leaf traits and plant growth in species from a Mediterranean old-field succession.  Functional Ecology 20:21-30.

72.               Vile*, D., Shipley, B. & Garnier, E. (2006). A structural equation model to integrate changes in functional strategies during old-field succession .  Ecology 87:504-517.

73.               Bradley, R.L., Beaulieau, C, & Shipley, B. (2006). Refining numerical approaches for analyzing soil microbial community metabolic profiles based on carbon source utilization patterns.  Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38:629-632.

74.               Prévost*, K., Couture, G., Shipley, B., Brzezinski, R., & Beaulieu, C. (2006). Effect of chitosan and of a biocontrol streptomycete on field and potato tuber bacterial communities. BioControl 51:533-546.

75.               Vile* D, Garnier E, Shipley B, Laurent G, Navas M-L, Roumet C, Lavorel S, Díaz S, Hodgson JG, Lloret F, Midgley GF, Poorter H, Rutherford MC, Wilson PJ, Wright IJ. (2005). Specific Leaf Area and Dry Matter Content Estimate Thickness in Laminar Leaves.  Annals of Botany 96: 1137-1140..

76.               Chbouki, S., Shipley, B. & Bamouh, A. (2005). Path models for the abscission of reproductive structures in three contrasting cultivars of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.).  Can. J. Bot. 83: 264-271.

77.               Shipley, B., Vile*, D., Garnier, E., Wright, I.J. & Poorter, H. (2005).  Functional linkages between leaf traits and net photosynthetic rate: reconciling empirical and mechanistic models.  Functional Ecology 19:602-615.

78.               Grenon*, F., Bradley, R.L., Jones, M., Shipley, B., Peat, H. (2005) Soil factors controlling mineral N uptake by Picea engelmannii seedlings: the importance of gross NH4+ production rates. New Phytologist 165: 791-800.

79.               Lapointe*, B., Bradley, R.L., Shipley, B. (2005). Mineral nitrogen and microbial dynamics in the forest floor of clearcut or partially harvested successional boreal forest stands. Plant & Soil 271: 27-37.

80.               Shipley, B. (2004).  Analysing the allometry of multiple interacting traits.  Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 6: 235-241.

81.               Almeida-Cortez*, J., Shipley, B. & Arnason, J.T. (2004).  Effects of nutrient availability on the production of pentaynene, a secondary compound related to defense, in Rudbeckia hirtaPlant Species Biology 18:85-89.

82.               Almeida-Cortez*, J.S.; Shipley, B. & Arnason, J.T. (2004) - Growth and chemical defense in relation to resource availability: tradeoffs or common responses to environmental stress? Brazilian Journal of Biology 64:187-194.

83.               Von Hardenberg*, A., Shipley, B. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (2003) Another one bites the dust: Does incisor arcade size affect mass gain and survival in grazing ungulates? Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1623-1629.

84.               Shipley, B. & Almeida-Cortez*, J. (2003).  Interspecific consistency and intraspecific variability of specific leaf area with respect to irradiance and nutrient availability.  Écoscience 10: 74-79.

85.               Shipley, B. (2003). Testing recursive path models with correlated errors using d-separation. Structural Equation Modeling 10: 214-221.

86.               Hunt, R., Causton, D.R., Shipley, B., & Askew, A.P. (2002). A modern tool for classical growth analysis.  Annals of Botany 90: 485-488.

87.               Shipley, B. (2002). Tradeoffs between net assimilation rate and specific leaf area in determining relative growth rate: the relationship with daily irradiance. Functional Ecology 16: 682-689.

88.               Dawid AP, Cox DR, Kreiner S, Green P, Shipley B, Kent JT, Smith JQ, Koster JTA, Madigan D, Andersson SA, Perlman MD, Robert CP, Marin JM, Rosenbaum PR, Roverato A, Consonni G, Studeny M. (2002). Chain graph models and their causal interpretations - Discussion on the paper by Lauritzen and Richardson. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series G – Statistical Methodology 64: 348-361 Part 3.

89.               Shipley, B. (2002). Start and stop rules for exploratory path analysis.  Structural Equation Modeling 9:554-561.

90.               Shipley, B. & Meziane*, D. (2002). The balanced growth hypothesis and the allometry of leaf and root biomass allocation.  Functional Ecology 16: 326-331.

91.               Shipley, B. & Thi-Tam*, V. (2002). Dry matter content as a measure of dry matter concentration in plants and their parts. New Phytologist 153: 359-364.

92.               Almeida-Cortez*, J. S. & Shipley, B. (2002). No significant relationship between seedling relative growth rate under nutrient limitation and potential tissue toxicity. Functional Ecology 16: 122-127.

93.               Garnier, E., Shipley, B., Roumet, C. & Laurent, G. (2001). A standardized protocol for the determination of specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content. Functional Ecology 15 : 688-695.

94.               Meziane*, D. & Shipley, B. (2001). Direct and indirect relationships between specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen and leaf gas exchange : effects of irradiance and nutrient supply. The Annals of Botany 88 : 915-927.

95.               Shipley, B. (2000). Plasticity in relative growth rate and its components following a change in irradiance. Plant, Cell and Environment 23 :1207-1216.

96.               Shipley, B. & Lechowicz, M. (2000). The functional co-ordination of leaf morphology, nitrogen concentration and gas exchange in 40 wetland species. Ecoscience 7 : 183-194.

97.               Shipley, B. (2000) A permutation procedure for testing the equality of pattern hypotheses across groups involving correlation or covariance matrices. Statistics and Computing Journal 10: 253-257.

98.               Shipley, B. (2000). A new inferential test for path models based on directed acyclic graphs. Structural Equation Modeling 7:206-218.

99.               Almeida-Cortez*, J., Shipley, B. & J. T. Arnason. (1999) Do plant species with high relative growth rates have poorer chemical defences? Functional Ecology 13 : 819-827.

100.           Pyankov, VI., Kondratchuk, A. & Shipley, B. (1999). Leaf structure and specific leaf mass: the alpine desert plants of the Eastern Pamirs (Tadjikistan). The New Phytologist 143: 131-142.

101.           Shipley, B. (1999). Testing causal explanations in organismal biology: causation, correlation and structural equation modelling. Oikos 86: 374-382.

102.           McKenna*, MF. & Shipley, B. (1999). Interacting determinants of interspecific relative growth rate: empirical patterns and a theoretical explanation. Ecoscience 6: 237-247.

103.           Meziane*, D. & Shipley, B. (1999). Interacting components of interspecific relative growth rate: constancy and change under differing conditions of light and nutrient supply. Functional Ecology 13:611-622.

104.           Meziane*, D. & Shipley, B. (1999). Interacting determinants of specific leaf area in 22 herbaceous species: effects of irradiance and nutrient availability. Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 447-459

105.           Shipley, B. (1997). Exploratory path analysis with applications in ecology and evolution. The American Naturalist 149:1113-1138.

106.           Keddy, PA., Twolan-Strutt, L. & Shipley, B. (1997). Experimental evidence that interspecific competitive asymmetry increases with soil productivity. Oikos 80:253-256.

107.           Shipley, B. & Hunt, R. (1996). Regression smoothers for estimating parameters in growth analysis. Annals of Botany 78:569-576.

108.           Visman, V., Pesant, S., Dion*, J., Shipley, B. & Peters, R. (1996). Joint effects of maternal and offspring sizes on clutch mass and fecundity in plants and animals. Ecoscience 3:173-182.

109.           McCanny, S.J., Hendershot, W., Lechowicz, M.J. & Shipley, B. (1995).The effects of aluminium on Picea rubens: factorial experiments using sand culture. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 25:8-17.

110.           Shipley, B. (1995). Structured interspecific determinants of specific leaf area in 34 species of herbaceous angiosperms. Functional Ecology 9:312-319.

111.           Reader, R.J., Wilson, S.D., Belcher, J.W., Wisheu, I. Keddy, P.A., Tilman, D., Morris, E.C., Grace, J.B., McGraw, J.B., Olff, H. Turkington, R., Klein, E., Leung, Y., Shipley, B., van Hulst, R., Johansson, M.E., Nilsson, C., Gurevitch, J., Grigulis, K. & Beisner, B.E. (1994). Intensity of plant competition in relation to neighbor biomass: an intercontinental study with Poa pratensis. Ecology 75:1753-1760.

112.           Shipley, B. & Keddy, P.A. (1994) Evaluating the evidence for competitive hierarchies in plant communities. Oikos 69:340-345.

113.           Shipley, B. (1993). A null model for competitive hierarchies in competition matrices. Ecology 74:1693-1699.

114.           Shipley, B., Lechowicz, M., Hendershot, W.H. & Dumont, S. (1992). The interactive effects of nutrient concentration, solution pH-Al concentration and CO2 concentration on the growth and vitality of Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings in relation to forest decline. Water, Soil and Air Pollution 64:585-600.

115.           Shipley, B. & Dion, J. (1992). The allometry of seed production in herbaceous angiosperms. The American Naturalist 139:467-483.

116.           Shipley, B., Keddy, P.A., Gaudet, C. & Moore, D.R.J. (1991). A model of species density in shoreline vegetation. Ecology 72: 1658-1667.

117.           Shipley, B. & Peters, R.H. (1991). The seduction by mechanism: A reply to Tilman. The American Naturalist 138: 1276-1282.

118.           Shipley, B. & Parent, M. (1991). Germination responses of 64 wetland species in relation to seed size, minimum time to reproduction and seedling relative growth rate. Functional Ecology 5: 111-118.

119.           Shipley, B., Keddy, P.A. & Lefkovitch, L.P. (1991). Mechanisms producing plant zonation along a water depth gradient: a comparison with the exposure gradient. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 1420-1424.

120.           Shipley, B. & Peters, R.H. (1990). The allometry of seed weight and seedling relative growth rate. Functional Ecology 4: 523-529.

121.           Shipley, B. & Peters, R.H. (1990). A test of the Tilman model of plant strategies: relative growth rate and biomass partitioning. The American Naturalist 136: 139-153.

122.           McCanny, S.J., Keddy, P.A., Arnason, T.J., Gaudet, C.L., Moore, D.R.J. & Shipley, B. (1990). Fertility and the food quality of wetland plants: a test of the resource availability hypothesis. Oikos 59: 373-381.

123.           Keddy, P.A. & Shipley, B. (1989) Competitive hierarchies in herbaceous plant communities. Oikos 54: 234-241.

124.           Shipley, B. (1989). The use of above-ground maximum relative growth rate as an accurate predictor of whole-plant maximum relative growth rate. Functional Ecology 3: 771-775.

125.           Shipley, B., Keddy, P.A., Moore, D.R.J. & Lemky, K. (1989). Regeneration and establishment strategies of emergent macrophytes. Journal of Ecology 77: 1093-1110.

126.           Shipley, B. & Keddy, P.A. (1988). The relationship between relative growth rate and sensitivity to nutrient stress in twenty-eight species of emergent macrophytes. Journal of Ecology 76: 1101-1110.

127.           Shipley, B. (1987). The relationship between dynamic game theory and the Lotka-Volterra competition equations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 125: 121-123.

128.           Van Hulst, R., Thériault, A. & Shipley, B. (1987). Why is Rhinanthus minor (Scrophulariaceae) such a good invader? Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2373-2379.

129.           Shipley, B. & Keddy, P.A. (1987). The individualistic and community-unit concepts as falsifiable hypotheses. Vegetatio 69: 47-55.

130.           Van Hulst, R., Thériault, A. & Shipley, B. (1986). The systematic position of the genus Rhinananthus (Schrophulariaciae) in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 1443-1449.

Chapitres de livres/ Book chapters

1.                   M.-J. Fortin and G.M. Jacquez and B. Shipley (2013). Computer-intensive sampling methods in ecology: in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics Second Edition, A.-H. El-Shaarawi and W. Piegorsch (eds).  John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp.489-493.

2.                   Shipley, B. (2009). Entropy Maximization and Species Abundance.  Dans: Meyers, Robert (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Vol 3, pp 2903-2918. Springer, New York.

3.                   Shipley, B. (2003). From biological hypotheses to structural equation models : The imperfection of causal translation. Dans Pugesek, B., Tomer, A. & von Eye, A. (éditeurs). Structural equation modeling : Applications in ecological and evolutionary biology research. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

4.                   Fortin, M.-J., Jacquez, G. M. & Shipley, B. (2001). Computer intensive sampling in ecology. Dans El-Shearawi & Piegorsch (editeurs). Encylopedia of environmetric. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

5.                   Shipley, B. (1999). Exploring hypothesis space: Examples from organismal biology. Dans Glymour, C. & Cooper, G. (éditeurs). Computation, Causation and Discovery. AAAI/MIT Press.

6.                   Shipley, B. & Meziane, D. (1998) The statistical modelling of plant growth and its components using structured equations. Dans Lambers, H. Poorter, H. & van Vuuren, M. (éditeurs). Variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

7.                   Keddy, P.A ., Wisheu, I., Shipley, B. & Gaudet, C. (1989) Seed banks and vegetation management for conservation. Dans : (Leck, M.A., Parker, V.T. et Simpson, R.L. (éditeurs). The Ecology of Soil Seed Banks. Academic Press.


Revues de livres sur invitation/ Invited book reviews

Shipley, B. (1994). Revue de Ricklefs, R.E. & Shluter, D. (1993). Écoscience 1 :359-360.

Shipley, B. (1997). Revue de Bazzaz F.A. (1996). Écoscience 4 :564.

Shipley, B. (2000). Revue de Pearl, J. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling 7 : 652-654.